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Vitamin B1 Deficiency, Beriberi
Thiamine deficiency occurs when ducks aren't getting enough thiamine (vitamin B1) in their diet. This can occur due to a lack of adaquate amounts of vitamin B1 in the diet or from being fed foods that contain thiaminase, which decreases the absorption of vitamin B1 (thiamine). Types of foods containing thuaminases include milled rice, fresh fish, clams, mussels, and shrimp. The toxic plant known as bracken fern also contains thiaminase.
Thiamine pyrophosphate, the biologically active form of thiamine, acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism through the decarboxylation of alpha ketoacids. In suspected cases of thiamine deficiency, prompt administration of parenteral thiamine is indicated.