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Salpingitis

Oviduct Infection

Salpingitis is the inflammation of the oviduct, usually associated with an infection, sometimes peritonitis. It can be caused by a wide variety of bacterial organisms, however it most frequently involves Escherichia coli (Colibacillosis), Pasteurella multocida (Avian Cholera), or Riemerella anatipestifer (Anatipestifer Infection) in ducks.

Salpingitis can occur in acute or chronic form. Common causes of salpingitis include other reproductive system conditions such as egg binding or oviduct impaction. The oviduct is one of the main organs within a female duck's reproductive system. It is a long twisted tube through which an ovum (egg) passes from the ovary. The oviduct is equivalent to the fallopian tube in woman. Initially ducks may not show any signs of infection, but will begin to lay fewer eggs and in some cases may stop laying eggs altogether. This has an internal impact on the bird, as the partially produced egg material (shell, yolk, membranes, etc.) that would normally develop into an egg will start to accumulate within the oviduct. The oviduct is only so large, and when it can no longer fit anymore egg material it will start to spill out and into the duck's body cavity.

Symptoms

Depression
Difficulty breathing
Routinely difficult time passing eggs
Lethargy
Redness or swelling of the cloaca
Discharge or odd-shaped, malformed eggs
Enlarged abdomen
Weight loss
Decreased egg production
Loss of appetite

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Laboratory tests
  • Endoscopy
  • Biopsy

Support/Treatment

MethodMethod Summary
Supportive careIsolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own duck "intensive care unit") with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
Antibiotics
Deslorelin acetate4.7 mg or 9.4 mg implant placed SC, GnRH agonist available as long-term implant
Leuprolide acetate200–1000 mg/kg IM q2–6wk
Salpingohysterectomy

Reported Cases

  • Case 1: Salpingitis in a Geese An outbreak of disease in a White Rhine laying goose flock was characterized by increased water uptake, increased mortality, production of eggs with abnormal shells, a 25% drop in egg production and 40% embryo mortality. Affected dead or sacrificed birds had sero-fibrinogranulocytic peritonitis and salpingitis, infiltration of the lamina propria in the uterus and heterophil granulocytes in the isthmus and magnum of the oviduct. Mycoplasmas, mainly identified as Mycoplasma sp. strain 1220, were isolated from the airsac, liver, ovary, magnum and peritoneum of some affected geese. Strain 1220 was originally isolated from a Hungarian gander with phallus inflammation and, according to detailed biochemical and serological examinations, it is expected to represent a new avian species within the genus Mycoplasma. Ref

Prevention

References

Risk Factors

  • Poor sanitary conditions
  • Chronic egg laying
  • Stress
  • Poor nutrition
  • Lowered immune system