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Attack From Predator

Ducks have an extensive list of predators--both wild and domestic animals. Although ducks of all life stages are at risk of predator attacks, young ducklings or injured and/or disabled ducks are most vulnerable. Depending on the predator that attacked the flock, the number of birds present, time of day, and other variable factors, sometimes there are ducks that survive an attack. Most are in some degree of shock following the event. These birds may or may not have been injured by the attacking animal, however the likelihood varies depending on the species of animal(s) that attacked and the number of birds in the flock.

Predators attack ducks using their teeth, claws, and body weight. Birds that survive an attack may have physically endured anything from superficial skin damage to extensive mutilation. Surviving ducks are often traumatized and may show signs of shock and emotional distress for several days to months following an attack.

An animals' bite wounds are capable of causing bone fractures, spinal injuries, ligament ruptures, and damage to vital organs and body tissues. Life threatening injuries should be treated for immediately. Any wounds should be covered with a sterile dressing to try to prevent further contamination by foreign substances.

Teeth forces exerted by an attacking animal may only appear on the surface as puncture wounds in the skin. However, teeth are able to puncture through deeper layers of tissue without appearing as such, since a duck's body is covered with feathers, it can easily conceal mild surface damages from teeth punctures. When teeth puncture into the deeper tissue it creates a dead space that bacteria, often left behind from their mouths, to enter. An animals oral cavity contains lots of different types of bacteria and fungi. Treatment for predator attacks depends on the type of attack, severity of the injury, and the overall health condition of the duck that was attacked. The main goals of care include early medical management, irrigation and cleansing of wounds, and bandaging and/or primary closure.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often needed, covering both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, due to the abundance of pathogenic bacteria present in the mouths and claws of the animal that attacked. Domestic cats and dogs are known to harbor high amounts of bacteria, including Pasteurella spp, the organism responsible for causing fowl cholera, a highly contagious, septicemic disease of ducks. The likelihood of a cat bite becoming infected is double of that of a dog bite.

Antibiotics, however do not replace the need for proper cleansing and debridement of any wounds. Ducks that survive an animal attack may initially appear unharmed, but several days later may get very sick.

Symptoms

Extensive lacerations
Decapitation
Missing bird or egg
Scattered feathers
Bite marks

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Necropsy

Support/Treatment

Vetericyn Plus Antimicrobial Poultry Care
MEDLINE DYND20302 Sterile Piston Irrigation Syringe Tray
Vetericyn VF Wound & Infection Treatment, 4 oz. Spray
Medihoney GEL
48 x 50 1/2inch Openings Square Mesh Welded Wire 19 Gauge
1/4 Inch Welded Hardware Cloth Galvanized 48x100
Lycoming 2 Pack Skunk Repellent Solar Predator
TheOutDoorShop Cat Repeller Fence and Wall Spikes – Strip of 8 White
ChickenGuard 'Extreme' Automatic Chicken Coop Pop
Premier PoultryNet Plus - White, Double Spike, 48" H x 100'L
Anti Bird Netting 25'x50' Soccer Baseball Game Poultry Fish Net Black 2"X2" Mesh Good Quality Square Mesh Size
Foxlights SOLAR Night Predator Deterrent
MethodMethod Summary
Supportive careIsolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own duck "intensive care unit") with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
Wound careStop bleeding and thoroughly clean wounds by flushing with copious volumes of warm sterile saline solution or 0.05% chlorhexidine.
AntibioticsIf ducks were bitten, especially from a cat, dog or other carnivore, they should be put on antibiotics immediately. Penicillin should be used if possible, due to it's effectiveness against Pasteurella multocida, which is a frequent bacteria found in the oral cavity of cats, dogs, and other carnivores.
Predator proofingDesign an enclosure that keeps ducks safe from predators from the sky and ground.

Reported Cases

  • Case 1: Predation in a Pheasants A flock of approximately 15,000 ring-necked pheasants was evaluated for a sudden increase in mortality and acute neurological signs after having been previously diagnosed 3 wk earlier with a chronic respiratory disease of undetermined etiology. Approximately 25 live birds were displaying neurological signs including circling, ataxia, and obtunded behavior and 50 birds were dead. Three birds with neurological signs were submitted for evaluation. Extensive subcutaneous hemorrhage over the head and penetrating puncture wounds through the skull and into the brain were found. Trauma from a wild predatory mammal, most likely the long-tailed weasel that had invaded the pheasant house and expressed surplus killing behavior was determined to be the cause of the acute neurological signs and mortality. The relationship of the chronic respiratory disease to the predation episode was not determined but it is possible that pheasants with severe respiratory disease may have had increased susceptibility to predation. Ref

Prevention

References

Age Range

Younger ducklings are even more at risk of an attack due to their size.

Risk Factors

  • Not designing duck enclosures against wild animals from entering
  • Letting ducks free range without any protection
  • Living near forests and/or body of water
  • Not keeping grass mowed
  • Performing management techniques which attract predators to the area
  • High rodent populations

Case Stories