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Leech Infestation

Leech Infection

Leech Infection Overview


Leech infection has been reported to occur in ducks. It should be considered an emergency condition and can be rapidly fatal to the bird. Leeches are visible to the naked eye however they may go undetected if they have already migrated inside of the duck. Usually they are seen protruding out of the duck's eyes (the conjunctiva just below the nictitating membrane) or from the nares. Infested ducks will usually appear distressed and irritated. They may frequently shake their heads and try cleaning their bill in the water, in an attempt to remove the leeches from their face. If leeches are feeding in the area around the eyes, affected ducks will usually also show signs of conjunctivitis and keratitis, possibly resulting in blindness. When the nasal cavity is affected, bleeding may occur from the duck's nostrils. Secondary infections caused by leeches are common.

Symptoms

Leeches visible
Head shaking
Distress
Conjunctivitis
Blindness

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam

Treatment

MethodMethod Summary
Manual removalVisible leeches can sometimes be gently removed using forceps, after applying proxymetacaine hydrochloride to the surface to aid in removal.
IvermectinDip the ends of protruding leeches in ivermectin (10 ug/ml), apply in the form of nasal drops, or administer 0.02 ml/kg orally or subcutaneous.
Ophthalmic antibiotic ointmentMay be required for secondary bacterial infections involving the eyes.

Prevention

References

Risk Factors

  • Ducks living near or with access to cold-water lakes

Seasonality

WinterSpringSummerAutumn