× Attention! This is a potentially life-threatening condition for your bird and possibly your flock. Time is of the essence, contact your veterinarian immediately. Find me a Vet Lead Poisoning
Lead poisoning is one of the most commonly reported toxic conditions in both wild and domestic ducks. In wild ducks, it is often caused by lead shotgun pellets. In domestic birds, it is often caused by ingestion of a number of different commonly found items around the home, or exposure to urban soils with high lead content.
Lead poisoning can occur as an acute or chronic condition. The chronic condition occurs slowly, over time. Once the duck ingests the material, it is retained in their gizzard where is is slowly ground down and absorbed into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodsteam, lead causes pansystemic damage, particularly to the gastrointestinal nervous, renal and hematopoietic systems.
Weakness (wing drooping, leg paresis)
History Clinical signs Physical exam Radiographs Laboratory tests
Method Method Summary Edetate calcium disodium (CaEDTA) 10-40 mg/kg twice daily intramuscularly (IM-IV) D-Penicillamine (PA) 55 mg/kg orally, twice daily Multiple B vitamins Iron dextran Intravenous lactated Ringer's Dimercaprol (BAL) 2.5 mg/kg IM every 4 hours for two days, then twice daily for up to 10 days or until clinical signs resolve Removal of the source of the toxin from the body - mineral oil may help with the passage of small particles of heavy metal out of the gastrointestional tract. Activated charcoal
Test lead content of soil Remove any materials containing lead from property Aloupi M, Karagianni A, Kazantzidis S, Akriotis T. Heavy Metals in Liver and Brain of Waterfowl from the Evros Delta, Greece. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol (2017) Best AA, Porter AL, Fraley SM, Fraley GS. Characterization of Gut Microbiome Dynamics in Developing Pekin Ducks and Impact of Management System. Front Microbiol. (2017) Kim J, Kim IK, Oh JM. Effect of embedded shot on trace element concentrations in livers of Anseriformes species. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf (2016) Ferreyra H, Beldomenico PM, Marchese K, Romano M, Caselli A, Correa AI, Uhart M. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina. Ecotoxicology (2015) Mateo, R. A. F. A. E. L. Lead poisoning in wild birds in Europe and the regulations adopted by different countries Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans (2009) Fisher, Ian J., Deborah J. Pain, and Vernon G. Thomas A review of lead poisoning from ammunition sources in terrestrial birds Biological conservation (2006) Burger, Joanna, and Michael Gochfeld. Effects of lead on learning in herring gulls: an avian wildlife model for neurobehavioral deficits Neurotoxicology (2005) Mateo, Rafael, et al Relationship between oxidative stress, pathology, and behavioral signs of lead poisoning in mallards Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A (2003) Kendall, Ronald J., et al. An ecological risk assessment of lead shot exposure in nonâwaterfowl avian species: Upland game birds and raptors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (1996) Pokras, Mark A., and Rebecca Chafel. Lead toxicosis from ingested fishing sinkers in adult common loons (Gavia immer) in New England Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (1992) Ferreyra H, Romano M, Beldomenico P, Caselli A, Correa A, Uhart M. Lead gunshot pellet ingestion and tissue lead levels in wild ducks from Argentine hunting hotspots. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. (2013) USGS Lead USGS Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases: Birds, Chapter 16 (2012) Beyer WN, Franson JC, Locke LN, Stroud RK, Sileo L. Retrospective study of the diagnostic criteria in a lead-poisoning survey of waterfowl. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. (1998) Flinchum, Gwen, BS, MS, DVM Chapter 36: Management of Waterfowl Clinical Avian Medicine. Vol. 63 (2014)
The Story of Joey Goose. 2017 Lead Poisoning. The Majestic Monthly Newsletter 2005