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Gapeworm

Syngamiasis

Gapeworm infection (a common name for syngamiasis) is a parasitic disease caused by the common nematode parasite,Syngamus trachea (otherwise known as the gapeworm). S. trachea attach themselves within the duck's trachea, where they feed on their blood and reproduce.

The severity of the infection depends on the duck's age and size, and number of S. trachea present in the trachea. Younger ducks and smaller duck breeds are usually more severely affected then large duck breeds and older, adult ducks. This is related to them having a more narrower tracheal opening---meaning a smaller number of S. trachea can be present and still cause the duck to suffocate.

The presence of S. trachea in the duck's trachea causes clinical signs related to mild to extensive blocking of airflow. Ducks are most commonly seen:
  • 'Snicking', whihch is a combination of sneezing, coughing, and sideways flicking of their heads.
  • Gasping or 'gaping', in which they are seen extending their necks outward and gasping for breath through their opened bills.
  • Some may produce a hissing noise at the same time.

How Ducks are Infected


S. trachea can have a direct or indirect life cycle. Direct meaning that it reinfects the hosts themselves (other ducks, poultry, and even wild birds), and indirect meaning it can also be found within certain mollusc species (slugs, snails, and earthworms). Ducks become infected either by consuming one of the species of mollusc containing S. trachea, or by ingesting their eggs from the environment when an infected bird has coughed them up. Wild birds often act as reservoirs of S. trachea--pheasants, ruffed grouse, partridges, wild turkeys, magpies, meadowlarks, robins, grackles, jays, jackdaws, rooks, starlings and crows.

Symptoms

Gasping for breath with open bill
Emitting a hissing sound
Extending neck outward
Coughing
Head shaking
Sneezing
Weight loss
Anemia
Weakness
Reduced egg laying

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Smears from the proventriculus, small intestine, and cecum

Treatment

MethodMethod Summary
Fenbendazole5-20 mg/kg of body weight, administered orally, once a day for 5 days
Thiabendazole100 mg/kg of body weight, administered by mouth SID for 7-10 days

Prevention

  • Tilling the soil in the pens at the end of the growing season helps to reduce the residual infection.
  • Treating the soil to eliminate earthworms, snails and slugs
  • Administering a wormer at 15 to 30-day intervals
  • Including a drug at low levels continuously beginning 15 days after birds are placed in the infected pens

References

Blogs

Risk Factors

  • Crowding of birds
  • Unsanitary living conditions
  • Access to snails, earthworms, and slugs

Also Consider