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Duck Plague

Duck Viral Enteritis, Peste Du Canard, Entenpest, Eeendenpest

Duck Plague, also known as Duck virus enteritis (DVE), is an acute, contagious disease caused by the herpesvirus, Anatid Herpesvirus 1 (AnHV-1). The severity of the disease depends on the virus strain and the resistance of the species of duck infected.

Clinical Disease


Duck plague is usually associated with sudden, high, persistent flock mortality during outbreaks. Duck plague causes hemorrhaging in the heart, liver, esophagus, and intestines and oral mucosal ulcers (often found under the tongue). Ducks which survive the infection may have scabs and scars in their mouth upon recovery. Common clinical signs observed in adult ducks include:
  • Penile prolapse: Adult male ducks often die with a prolapsed penis.
  • Weakness: Ducks often will be so weak that they are unable to stand or hold their head up. Drooped wings are also observed often.
  • Diarrhea: Affected ducks often have bloody or greenish-watery diarrhea stained on their vents.
  • Polydipsia: Increased water intake due to excessive thirst.
  • Generalized illness signs: Lethargy, fever, reduced appetite, partially closed eyelids, light sensitivity, ruffled feathers, and depression.
  • Sometimes affected ducks will be found dead, with the bird showing no clinical signs of sickness prior. This is especially the case with the more sensitive species, such as the Muscovy duck.
When young ducklings are affected (typically between 2 to 7 weeks of age), clinical signs most often observed include:
  • Lacrimation (tearing eyes)
  • Dehydration
  • Weight loss
  • Bloody discharge from nares
  • Blood-stained vent.
  • Bloody fluid in mouth
  • Blue colored beaks
  • Conjunctivitis

How Duck Plague is Diagnosed


Duck plague is usually diagnosed from clinical signs which display blood present in the vent, nares or mouth. However, since many of the clinical signs appear similar to several other diseases, it will need to be differentiated from duck virus hepatitis, necrotic enteritis, lead poisoning, and pasteurellosis.

Transmission


Duck plague is spread vertically (from breeding duck to the duckling hatching from the egg) or horizontally (through direct contact with an infected bird or indirectly from a contaminated environment). Wild migratory or free-ranging waterfowl are notoriously known to be silent carriers of the virus, often showing no clinical signs of infection. The disease is frequently seen when domestic and wild waterfowl come in contact with one another, such as in residential settings or urban ponds. Any ducks that recover from duck plague usually remain lifelong carriers, meaning they can shed the virus in their feces, exposing other birds to infection for several years after. The virus can survive for long periods in the environment.

Incubation Period


In domestic ducks, the incubation period for duck plague ranges from 3 to 7 days. After initial clinical signs appear, most ducks will die within 1 to 5 days.

Risk Factors of Duck Plague


Duck plague outbreaks have been documented in both wild and domestic waterfowl worldwide, with the exception of Australia. Most outbreaks occur during the spring to early summer. Ducks of all ages are susceptible to duck plague, however it is most severe in adult ducks.

Symptoms

Greenish-watery diarrhea
Soiled vents
Excessive thirst
Lacrimation (watery eyes)
Loss of appetite
Depression/lethargy
Ruffled feathers
Ataxia
Difficulty breathing
Light sensitivity
Convulsions
Paralysis
Sudden death

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Necropsy
  • Histopathology
  • Viral isolation

Support/Treatment

MethodMethod Summary
Supportive careIsolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own duck "intensive care unit") with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
Penciclovir10 mg/kg IP q24h 3 12–24 weeks, dissolve in 2 mL of 1% DMSO

Reported Cases

  • Case 1: Duck viral enteritis in a Muscovy ducks Duck viral enteritis (DVE) was the cause of severe lethargy, recumbency and death in six backyard Muscovy ducks that became acutely sick and died within 2-3 days of onset of signs. All three ducks submitted had lesions compatible with DVE including hemorrhagic enteritis, multifocal hepatic necrosis and ulcerative esophagitis, with herpesvirus inclusions in hepatocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. The disease did not affect one Ancona duck and chickens cohabiting the premise. In addition, Salmonella group B contributed to the hepatitis and was isolated from an intestinal pool. Ref

Prevention

  • Vaccination: Immunization of ducks with a live attenuated vaccine
  • Quarantine new ducks for at least 30 days before introducing them into the existing flock of birds.
  • Prevent contact with wild waterfowl.
  • Maintain sanitation

References

Blogs

Age Range

Ducks of all ages can be affected, although it is most commonly seen in mature, adult ducks.

Risk Factors

  • Adopting or rescuing ducks who were dumped in a pond where they were exposed to wild ducks.
  • Allowing domestic ducks contact with wild waterfowl
  • Letting ducks swim in water bodies used by wild waterfowl, or letting wild waterfowl swim in the water source commonly used by the ducks
  • Presence of wild waterfowl on the premises, especially if some of the birds appear to be sick.

Seasonality

WinterSpringSummerAutumn